Sep 18, 2019
Gravitational waves from a ringing black hole support the no-hair theorem
General relativity suggests the spacetime oddities can be fully described by their mass and spin
For black holes, it's tough to stand out from the crowd: Donning a mohawk is a no-no.
Ripples in spacetime produced as two black holes merged into one suggest that the behemoths have no "hair," scientists report in the Sept. 13 Physical Review Letters. That's another way of saying that, as predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, black holes have no distinguishing characteristics aside from mass and the rate at which they spin (SN: 9/24/10).
"Black holes are very simple objects, in some sense," says physicist Maximiliano Isi of MIT.
Detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, LIGO, in 2015, the spacetime ripples resulted from a fateful encounter between two black holes, which spiraled around each other before crashing together to form one big black hole (SN: 2/11/16). In the aftermath of that coalescence, the newly formed big black hole went through a period of "ringdown." It oscillated over several milliseconds as it emitted gravitational waves, similar to the way a struck bell vibrates and makes sound waves before eventually quieting down.
Reverberating black holes emit gravitational waves not at a single frequency, but with additional, short-lived frequencies known as overtones — much like a bell rings with multiple tones in addition to its main pitch.
Measuring the ringing black hole's main frequency as well as one overtone allowed the researchers to compare those waves with the prediction for a hairless black hole. The results agreed within 20 percent.
That result still leaves some wiggle room for the no-hair theorem to be proved wrong. But, "It's a clear demonstration that the method works," says physicist Leo Stein of the University of Mississippi in Oxford, who was not involved with the research. "And hopefully the precision will increase as LIGO improves."
The researchers also calculated the mass and spin of the black hole, using only waves from the ringdown period. The figures agreed with the values estimated from the entire event — including the spiraling and merging of the original two black holes — and so reinforced the idea that the resulting black hole's behavior was determined entirely by its mass and spin.
But just as a mostly bald man may sport a few strands, black holes could reveal some hair on closer inspection. If they do, that might lead to a solution to the information paradox, a puzzle about what happens to information that falls into a black hole (SN: 5/16/14). For example, in a 2016 attempt to resolve the paradox, physicist Stephen Hawking and colleagues suggested that black holes might have "soft hair" (SN: 4/3/18).
"It could still be that these objects have more mysteries to them that will only be revealed by future, more sensitive measurements," Isi says.